The Humiliation of Canossa (Italian: L’umiliazione di Canossa), sometimes called the Walk to Canossa (German: Gang nach Canossa/Kanossa) or Road to Canossa, was the ritual submission of the Holy Roman Emperor, Henry IV to Pope Gregory VII at the Castle of Canossa in 1077 during the Investiture Controversy.
On January 25, 1077, Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor, arrived at the gates of the fortress of Canossa in Emilia Romagna, beyond the Alps, to declare atonement and ask Pope Gregory VII for forgiveness who had earlier excommunicated Henry from the church. Henry’s act of penance became known as the “Walk to Canossa”.
Matilda of Canossa, first names Matilda the Great Countess, Italian Matilde di Canossa or Matilde la Gran Contessa, (born 1046, Lucca, Tuscany – died 24 July 1115, Bondeno, Romagna), Countess of Tuscany remembered for her role in the conflict between the papacy and the Holy Roman Emperor.
The final decision was to be made at a meeting to be convened in Augsburg, to which the Pope was also invited. But Henry secretly traveled to northern Italy and did penance in Canossa before Gregory VII, whereupon he was readmitted to the Church.
Between May 6 and 11, 1111, Matilda was reportedly made Imperial Vicar and Viceroy of Italy< by Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor, at the Castle of Bianello (Quattro Castella, Reggio Emilia). /b> crowned the Donizo account. With her death in 1115 the house of Canossa became extinct.
Canossa, 10th-century ruined castle southwest of Reggio nell’Emilia in Italy, famous as the meeting place (1077) of Pope Gregory VII and Emperor Henry IV. The fort was built c. 940 by Atto Adalbert, founder of the House of Attoni and first Count of Canossa.
The Humiliation of Canossa (Italian: L’umiliazione di Canossa), sometimes also called the Walk to Canossa (German: Gang nach Canossa/Kanossa) or the Road to Canossa, was the ritual submission of the Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire Henry IV to Pope Gregory VII at the Castle of Canossa in 1077 during the Investiture Controversy.
On September 23, 1122, Pope Callixtus II and Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor, concluded an agreement near the German city of Worms, now known as the Worms Concordat, which effectively ended the investiture dispute.
Worms, Concordat of 1122, agreement between Pope Calixtus II and Emperor Henry V of the Holy Roman Empire to end the struggle over the Investiture. By his decrees the emperor guaranteed the free election of bishops and abbots and renounced the right to equip them with the ring and staff, the symbols of their spiritual duties.
When he arrived, the Pope made the humiliated Henry wait in the bitter cold for three days before finally agreeing to see him. Contemporary accounts say that when Henry was finally allowed to enter the gates, he walked barefoot through the snow and knelt at the Pope’s feet asking forgiveness.
Henry IV was excommunicated as a result of a long struggle with Gregory VII, in which Henry IV sent Gregory a letter calling him a false monk and declaring him dismissed.< /p>
Why did Henry IV ask the Pope for forgiveness? He wanted to gain more control as emperor.
Definition of Canossa
: a place or occasion of submission, humiliation or penance – often used with go, he went to his Canossa when he reversed his policy.< /b>p>
In the 11th and 12th centuries, a series of popes questioned the authority of European monarchies. The issue at stake was who, the pope or the monarchs, had the power to appoint (invest) local church officials such as bishops of cities and abbots of monasteries.
Gregor insisted on canonically elected bishops (for dioceses), provosts or priors (for Reformed canons) and abbots (for monasteries). Only they would be true shepherds, fit to lead all Christians.
Pope Innocent III. spent much of his tenure as Pope (1198–1216) preparing a great crusade in the Holy Land.