This method is also known as longitudinal leveling or longitudinal cutting. The purpose of the level error is to determine the unevenness of the ground surface along a given line, which is usually the center line of a road, railroad, canal or pipeline.
Cross-sectional surveys provide a snapshot of a population’s characteristics and what is happening at a given point in time. They can be population-based, conducting household surveys through random sampling, or they can be conducted with health services and schools.
A long section is a profile view of a surface along a given route, plotting elevation versus distance along the route, e.g. B. Soil profile along the center line of a road, railroad or river. In a long section, altitude meters are determined along a fixed route.
A profile represents a straight line through the point cloud between two points, resulting in the 3D representation of the point cloud along that line. cross sections. A cross section represents a perpendicular line on a path, resulting in the 3D representation of the point cloud along that section.
Object – The main objective of longitudinal leveling or profiling is to determine the waviness of the ground surface along the predetermined line at regular intervals. It is used in the centerline of roads, railroads, pipelines, canals and curves to determine the slope of the proposed road.
Longitudinal Section: A section cut along the longitudinal axis of a structure. Longitudinal is the opposite of cross-section.
Reduced level (RL): This is the height or elevation above the point used as a location reference for elevation purposes.
The vertical distance between two points is called the elevation difference, which is similar to what you learned as the elevation difference (see section 5.0). The process of measuring differences in height is called leveling and is a fundamental process in topographic surveys.
a cross-section obtained by actual or imaging cutting of the body or any part of the body structure in a horizontal plane, i.e. H. a plane that intersects the longitudinal axis at the right angle.
The longitudinal section is defined as the section along the longitudinal axis of the structure. It is also related to the other vertical sections (median, coronal and sagittal). This cut is made through a plane along the vertical axis of the body. The opposite of a longitudinal section is a cross section.
Except for the form of the field notes, there is actually no difference in approach between profile and cross-section leveling. Cross-section pole photographs are normally taken during the course profile survey from the same instrument positions used for centerline pole photographs.
A diagram or drawing showing, along a specified line, the configuration or slope of the ground surface as it would appear if intersected by a vertical plane.
In levelling, a method of calculating reduced levels by subtracting staff readings from the level of the instrument’s line of sight (collimation line). This method is usually preferred when there is a need to get the levels of many points from a setup.
Profile leveling is the process of leveling along a solid line to determine the elevations of the ground surface along the line. Profile leveling is also known as longitudinal cutting.
Reciprocal leveling is a surveying technique that takes measurements from both directions between two points to reduce errors. In surveying, to level means to find the relative elevation of different points in the land.