In linguistics, declension (verb: to decrease) is changing the form of a word, generally to express its syntactic function in a sentence through an inflection.
For example, in a sentence saying a ball belongs to a male, with the ball in subject position, there is a declension for case (possessive) and gender.
The inflection of nouns is called a declension. The individual declensions are called cases and together they form the case system. Nouns, pronouns, adjectives and participles are declined in six cases: nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, ablative and vocative and two numbers (singular and plural).
The Latin language has five declensions, each based on stem. The first declension is considered the -a stem, the second the -o stem, the third the consonant, the fourth the -u stem, and the fifth the -e stem.
Conjugation versus Declension
Conjugation describes inflection of verbs. In many languages this is more complex than… Declension describes the inflection of, well, everything else, usually nouns but possibly also pronouns, adjectives, determiners, depending on the language.
In Latin, word order is used not only to indicate what role a noun plays in a sentence or phrase, but also what is called the declension and case. A case tells the speaker or reader what the noun does or is doing, and the declension of the noun decides what the case will look like.
In modern English, the declension system is so simple compared to some other languages that the term declension is rarely used. Most nouns in English have distinct singular and plural forms, and distinct plaintext and possessive forms.
There are five declensions, numbered and grouped by ending and grammatical gender. Every noun follows one of the five declensions, but some irregular nouns have exceptions.
Inflection refers to any morphological change in words to suit a grammatical purpose. “Declension” is usually used in reference to nouns and how they “change” to fit the syntax of a sentence.
It’s actually quite easy to recognize the declension of a Latin noun. You look at the genitive singular form of the noun and see what ending it has. This ending tells you which declension it belongs to.
Declensions are a system for organizing nouns. Conjugations are a system for organizing verbs. 3. Declensions have cases (nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, ablative) that can be singular or . Plural. (
Sanskrit has six declension classes, while Latin traditionally has five and Ancient Greek three.
Nouns of the 1st declension are (almost always) feminine in gender. Nouns of the 2nd declension are masculine or neuter. Again, gender is arbitrary, but the declension patterns map to specific grammatical genders. However, adjectives do not have their own gender.
Neuter nouns of the third declension Italian nouns can come from either the nominative/accusative (e.g. capo from caput, cuore from cor) or from the oblique case, which is used for other cases and for the Plural used, inherit ( B. latte from lac, lact-, giure from ius, iur-).
Latin has a total of five declensions, grouped by the type of sound that comes at the end of a noun’s base. First declension includes nouns whose bases end in -a, second declension nouns have bases ending in -o, third in consonants, fourth in -u and fifth in -e.
Almost all Greek nouns belong to one of three inflection patterns called FIRST DECLSION, SECOND DECLSION, and THIRD DECLSION. Each represents a particular set of CASE ENDINGS for gender, number, and case. So far we have encountered only nouns of the THIRD DECLENSIATION. This lesson introduces FIRST DECLENION nouns.
The nominative case is the case used for a noun or pronoun that is the subject of a verb. For example (nominative shaded): Mark eats cake. (The noun “Mark” is the subject of the verb “isst”. “Mark” is in the nominative case.
Such special endings are often called declension by teachers of Latin, Greek or Old English. Most synthetic Indo-European languages use the following cases: Nominative: Words usually function as the subject of a sentence in this case, or in some cases as the predicate nominative.