The Patwin ate fish from the river and deer and other animals from the hills. On the Sacramento River, they built fishing weirs (dams) out of poles and willow rods driven into the river bottom. Salmon and sturgeon were caught this way. Smaller fish such as perch, pike and trout were caught in nets.
The Patwin (also Patween, Southern Wintu) are a group of Wintun people native to the Northern California area. The Patwin form the southern branch of the Wintun group, Native Americans since about AD 500
What did the Wintu houses look like in the past? The Wintus lived in earth huts, also called pit houses. Usually, these houses consisted of a cone-shaped frame of wooden poles dug in the ground over a basement-like hole. Then the frame was covered with leaves of redwood bark.
Historically, the Wintu lived primarily on the western side of the northern portion of the Sacramento Valley, from the Sacramento River to the Coast Range.
Wintun economies relied on wild foods, including acorns, fish, and waterfowl. Not much is known of Wintun social or political organization, although it is known that the Patwin had a community leader with near-absolute power. The Wintun religion was based on the belief in One Creator.
Patwin Men usually wore no clothes. Women in the villages along the river made skirts or aprons from tule reeds or crushed bark. Those who lived in the mountains were more likely to wear deerskin skirts. Neither men nor women wore hats or shoes.
The Wappo (endonym: Micewal) are an indigenous people of northern California. Their traditional home is in the Napa Valley, on the south shore of Clear Lake, in the Alexander Valley and in the Russian River Valley. They are distantly related to the Yuki people, from whom they appear to have split at least 500 years ago.
The Wintu got dentalium shells from the Shasta to the north in exchange for deer hides and woodpecker scalps. They traveled 60 miles northeast into the Modoc Territory to mine obsidian (volcanic glass).
Between 1830 and 1833, many Wintu died in a malaria epidemic that killed an estimated 75% of the indigenous population in the upper and central Sacramento Valley.
They are not a federally recognized tribe, although they are working toward federal recognition. Some Winnemem Wintu feel that the Bureau of Indian Affairs does not recognize them, but by government error and not termination.
The Winnemem once numbered about 14,000; By 1910, after several decades of conflict with white settlers, that number had fallen to 400. Today the tribe numbers about 150.
The Redding Rancheria is made up of Wintu, Achomawi (Pit River) and Yana Indians. Redding Rancheria was recognized as a tribe in 1979 after a four-year lawsuit by Tillie Hardwick. It is located in the northern Sacramento Valley, near Redding.
The tribe is believed to have originally descended from people living in Sonoma County, California. This would have been a coastal area full of redwoods. About 9,000 years ago the first people to migrate to Clear Lake began their journey that marked the beginning of the development of the Pomo tribe.
Shastan, also called Sastise, North American Native American peoples who spoke languages related to the Hokan tribe and lived in the highlands of what is now central north California, in the basins of the upper Klamath, Scott and Shasta rivers.
The Shasta Dam, which rises over 600 feet, flooded much of our tribe’s homeland and submerged dozens of our sacred sites. It prevented our salmon from reaching their spawning grounds. And by holding back water when the river needs it, the Shasta Dam has pushed our salmon to the brink of extinction.
Since the Maidu lived in the mountains, they depended more on animals such as deer for their sustenance. They were good hunters. Sometimes a man hunted alone and sometimes with a group of men. They had hounds to help with the hunt.
The Miwok, he claims, arrived about 1000 BC
The number of Yokuts was reduced by about 93% between 1850 and 1900, with many of the survivors being forced into forced labor sanctioned by the California State Act for the Government and Protection of Indians. A few Tal-Yokuten remain, the most prominent being the Tachi.
The tools used by Wappo were wedges, fire drills and axes. There were tools for scraping animal skins, shells, and baskets for dishes. Wappo Indians were known to be skilled basket weavers, influenced by the master basket weavers, the Pomo.